A properly executed 8130-3 is used to approve or certify that the new or used part meets conformity requirements from the FAA, or to certify approval for return to service of a component following maintenance.
When a component is changed on the aircraft, the removed component Part Number and Serial Number should be recorded as removed, and the replacement component Part Number and Serial Number should be recorded as installed in the maintenance entry (Ref: FAR 43.09 (1).) Additionally, the 8130-3 Approval Tag shows traceability and should accompany the logbook entry as confirmation that the installed component comes from the manufacturer as new or is from an approved repair station authorized to sign for the return to service of the component after inspection, repair, or overhaul.
Importantly, if the component has a life limit, or needs to be tracked for overhaul purposes in accordance with the requirements of FAR 91.417, it is imperative to keep a record of the total time, cycles, and date the parts were installed. Including the 8130-3 with the logbook entry is suitable verification of the total time and cycles on the component, and date it was installed on the aircraft. And is often used as proof of time/cycles on a component.
Another item that should be included in a comprehensive maintenance entry are the 8130-3 approval tags for components installed or replaced when accomplishing maintenance.
This is both important justification for the airworthiness of the item being installed on the aircraft, and foundational to the approval for Return to Service.
Including the 8130-3 Approval Tags for reference with the FAR 43 maintenance entry, and keeping the 8130-3s for all Life Limited or Overhaul parts installed on the aircraft are important and necessary parts of proper record keeping.